Enlargement of breast in males is known as gynecomastia. It can affect one side or both sides. It is usually due to an imbalance between estrogen (female hormone) and testosterone (male hormone). Lot of boys during puberty have variable enlargement of the breast and this is called pubertal gynecomastia. Sometimes pubertal gynecomastia may cause cosmetic issues.
All patients with gynecomastia should be checked for pathological reasons by a good clinical history and examination. If there is any suggestion of pathological gynecomastia, relevant investigation should be done. Most cases of gynecomastia are pubertal in nature, but other causes like hypogonadism (low testosterone production due to various reasons), drug induced, liver or kidney disease, thyroid disease, pituitary disease, testicular tumors or in association with adrenal diseases.
If gynecomastia is bothersome, plastic surgical management can be done (reduction mammoplasty).
Most patients, especially the ones with smaller breast size resolves as puberty progresses.