Type 1 diabetes involves autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic beta cells. This basically means that the cells that produce insulin in the pancreas (Beta cells) are destroyed by cells called lymphocytes in the blood. These lymphocytes are involved in the normal defense mechanisms of the body against the bacteria and virus. However in some genetically prone individuals, these cells attack the beta cells of pancreas.
In a new mode of experimental therapy, regulatory T cells (Tregs) from patients with type 1 diabetes were isolated and used to “re-educate “the immune system of the patient. This would help dampen the unregulated immune response against the beta cells at the same time making sure that the body is fit to take care of infections (normal immune response). The science on understanding the disease is progressing at rapid speed. And it is good news.