Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) is a genetic syndrome associated with lack of an enzyme in the adrenal hormone production pathway. There are various types of CAH. In the most common type of CAH, the girl child will present with an ambiguous genitalia (male looking) at birth. The male child will have a normal genitalia. Since…


Growth Hormone Deficiency

Growth hormone deficiency in children can be genetic or acquired. The genetic disorders of the pituitary gland are due to factors that affect the development and function of cells that produce growth hormone. The acquired causes are due to factors like surgery or radiation to the pituitary gland. Children with growth hormone problems may present…


Turner Syndrome

Turner syndrome is a common genetic syndrome seen in girls. Even though some children may get identified at birth, most children will get identified in childhood. Poor height (short stature) is the most common presenting symptom in children. They are shorter than their peers and will show poor growth. Some children have distinct changes of…


Prader- Willi syndrome

Prader – Willi syndrome is a genetic syndrome presenting as obesity in children. Many of these children are not identified in the early stages of life but may present later with obesity and behavioral problems. Children may have constant hunger and overeating. Most of these children have behavioral and learning problems. They tend to have…


Congenital Hypothyroidism

Congenital hypothyroidism is a common condition where the new born has a poorly functioning thyroid gland. The thyroid produces thyroxine which is responsible for critical functions in the new born which includes brain development, normal digestive movements, growth and bone development. Children with congenital hypothyroidism…


Obesity in children

Weight gain is one of the most common endocrine problems seen in children. The most common cause of obesity is labelled as “simple obesity”. However, simple obesity is not that simple to deal with. Children who are obese turn out to be adults who are obese. Even children can have metabolic problems like abnormal cholesterol…


Premature Adrenarche

Premature adrenarche refers to the presence of secondary sexual hair in girls younger than 8 years old and boys younger than 9 years old. It is more common in girls than in boys. Other features like greasiness of the skin, acne and adult body odour may be present. Adrenarche occurs due to increased adrenal androgen synthesis…


Pubertal Gynecomastia

Enlargement of breast in males is known as gynecomastia. It can affect one side or both sides. It is usually due to an imbalance between estrogen (female hormone) and testosterone (male hormone). Lot of boys during puberty have variable enlargement of the breast and this is called pubertal gynecomastia. Sometimes pubertal gynecomastia may cause cosmetic issues.

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