Osteoporosis is usually diagnosed by using DXA (Dual Energy Xray Absorptiometry)for
measuring Bone Mineral Density (BMD). It is a non invasive test and is not painful. It involves checking your spine, hip and wrist for bone thinning. Other tests include qCT ( quantitative CT ) and ultrasound based screening for osteoporosis.

Once osteoporosis is diagnosed, we need to look into the reasons why it has occurred.
The reasons can be very diverse from calcium and vitamin D deficiency to malignancies like multiple myeloma or hormonal diseases like hyperparathyroidism.