Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a disease where multiple defects in insulin production and action or reduction in GLP-1RA result in high blood glucose levels and lead to significant complications. We have several drugs to treat Type 2 DM, which addresses many of the above defects and gives the patient reasonable overall metabolic control. Most people with diabetes are first started on oral medicines before injectable medications. The older oral medicines include Metformin, Sulphonylureas(e.g Glimepiride), Pioglitazone and DPP4 inhibitors.

The new drugs are mainly of two groups:

1.Semaglutide (RYBELSUS) is a new oral diabetes medicine that acts similar to GLP-1. The levels of GLP-1 are reduced in diabetes. GLP-1 increases insulin production from the pancreas and reduces the production of glucagon. Glucagon is a hormone that raises blood glucose.

2.GLIFLOZINS or Sodium-Glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitor are a group of medicines that act by flushing out glucose through the urine and reducing blood glucose. As a result, they have kidney and heart protection benefits, especially in people with previous kidney and heart disease. The drugs in this group are Empagliflozin, Canagliflozin, and Dapagliflozin.

Dr. Deepa G