Obesity is a complex health issue in which weight gain has reached the point where it poses significant risks to health. It is now a worldwide public health problem, affecting all age and socio-economic groups. According to WHO estimates over 4 million people die each year as a result of being overweight or obese. Obesity is closely related to several other chronic diseases, including heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea, certain cancers, joint diseases, and more.
Professional organization like American Medical Association and World Health Organization considers obesity as a disease. This makes obesity more than just a lifestyle disorder. It results from a combination of causes and individual factors such as behavior and genetics. Behaviors can include physical inactivity, dietary patterns, medication use, and other exposures. Obesity occurs due to increased accumulation of fat which cannot always be attributed to eating too many calories or lacking physical activity. Individuals with obesity can have abnormalities in metabolic pathways, disordered signaling for hunger, satiety (the feeling of fullness), and fullness. Considering obesity as a disease will help physicians and patients take it more seriously. Therefore, management of obesity requires a multifaceted approach targeting changes lifestyle, nutrition, mental health, and environment.